Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) can be used by people who cannot rely on speech. We start an AAC journey by presuming competence. When we presume competence, we understand that opportunities and instruction are needed. We believe in a person's ability to communicate and learn.
Doing this is often called the "Least dangerous assumption". As in, it is far more dangerous, to not believe and do nothing.
“Start by presuming that your learner is on their way to developing competence. Good intervention, consistent language models, the right tools, and plenty of practice will move them along the journey toward improved communication. It’s important that, we truly believe that. Yes, your clients may be impaired, perhaps significantly so, but they will certainly know if you don’t believe in their abilities. Presume competence.” Carole Zangari from Praactical AAC.
Two principles to Presuming Competence
Presuming competence for AAC users is based on two principles. These apply to all human beings, regardless of diagnosis or degree of difference.
- Everyone has something to say
- Everyone can learn
1. Everyone has something to say
Everyone has something to say. Every person has ideas on the inside. This is there, regardless of how they appear to the outside observer. They have feelings, observations, preferences, opinions, stories, memories, and dreams. Some people do not yet have a way to express these inner ideas. Those ideas are still real and there. Our goal should be to allow every communicator to express his or her inner thoughts. We need to give them a way to do this, that everyone can understand. These rich inner thoughts extend beyond just requesting. It includes being able to say anything to anyone, at anytime.
2. Everyone can learn
When a person is not able to communicate using speech, there is lots we don't know. We can’t be sure about their ability to understand and use language. We don't yet know their skills and potential. But we must make the least dangerous assumption and presume competence.
We need to provide the right AAC tools. We need to allow time and training with those tools. We have no way to know a person’s potential without this.
Everyone can learn and grow, given appropriate training and tools. This doesn’t mean that everyone can learn everything. You may never be a championship skier, but with the right instruction and practice, and ski equipment that fits you properly, you can learn basic moves. But without skis and instruction, you will never realize your potential as a skier. It’s the same with communication for non-speaking people. Everyone has potential, but the right AAC system and effective instruction are needed before that potential can be revealed and realized.
3 considerations for AAC systems that presume competence
When we believe that everyone has something to say, and everyone can learn, it influences the AAC system and vocabulary we choose. We will choose vocabulary that allows people to reveal and realize their potential. And to give them a way to express their inner thoughts. To do this, all AAC system should contain these 3 things.
1. Give them words
People who cannot rely on speaking, are in a unique and vulnerable position. They literally can’t say what we don’t give them the words for. This is why we should choose a vocabulary that gives access to as many words as possible. We just don’t know what someone who can’t speak will want to say when they’re given a voice with all the words. Give them all the words so they can say it!
2. Communicate for all the reasons
There are so many different reasons why people communicate. We often start with requesting when we teach AAC, because this feels like the easiest place to start. But there are so many other reasons that humans communicate to express their rich inner lives. If we’re presuming competence, we must presume that everyone needs access to all these reasons to communicate.
3. Access to the alphabet
An AAC system should not only presume competence for learning a symbol-based communication system. It should also presume competence for learning some level of literacy. The ability to spell independently can give freedom of expression to an AAC user. He or she will no longer be dependent on a caregiver or therapist to add words to the AAC system. However, even if full literacy isn’t reachable, any degree of spelling is an asset. For example, being able to use initial letter sounds or invented spelling to express something that is not in the AAC vocabulary is an invaluable skill. An AAC system that presumes competence and the ability to learn, should also give easy and full access to the alphabet!
All humans should be treated with respect and dignity. Someone with a communication difficulty or speech impediment or disorder using AAC, is no different. Presume competence in someone's abilities, in their unique skills, and in their individual thoughts. Our attitude to their communication and learning matters. Our attitude changes the way we interact and the opportunities we might provide.
There are not any prerequisites to using AAC. Communicators should not have to demonstrate certain skills before they can be eligible to access AAC. They are never too young or too old to start AAC. They do not have to prove themselves. Presuming competence means an AAC user is given the tools and instruction they need to learn, regardless of their speech impediment, diagnosis or degree of difference.
The next step
Presuming competence means we presume everyone is a unique individual with something to say.
Once we have done this, we can select a balanced AAC system that gives the AAC user the words they need. We can support the AAC user in a way that suits them.
Everyone can learn. Everyone has something to say. But we won’t know what that is, until we give them the chance.
Links & References
- Beukelman, D., & Mirenda, P. (2013). (Eds.), Augmentative and Alternative Communication (4th Ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.
- Farrall, Jane. (2015). AAC: Don’t Demand Prerequisite Skills. [Blog post]
- Jorgensen, Cheryl. (2005). The Least Dangerous Assumption. [Presentation]
- Kangas, K. & Lloyd (1988) Early cognitive skills as prerequisites to augmentative and alternative communication use: What are we waiting for?, Augmentative and Alternative Communication, 4(4), 211-221
- Niemeijer, David. Presuming competence: the only prerequisite to AAC. [Blog]
- Romski, M.A. & Sevcik, R.A. (2005) Augmentative communication and early intervention: myths and realities. Infants and Young Children 18 (3), 174
- Sheldon, Erin. Presuming Maggie's Competence. [Blog]
- Zangari, Carole. (2014). Engaging the Learner. [Blog]